This paper employs micro data to examine the effects of primary care expansion in rural China from the 1960s to 1970s. The data reveal a steady increase in the presence of midwives in rural China, reflecting China’s efforts to train primary care workers. By adopting an event study approach, I find the presence of midwives significantly reduced infant mortality in a commune. Economically advantaged communes experienced greater improvement in terms of primary care and a larger reduction in infant mortality rates. These beneficial health effects could not be explained by midwife delivery per se. Moreover, the age-2 mortality of children with poor health was reduced by the presence of midwives, indicating that other primary care interventions in addition to reproductive health services also helped improve health.